04 December 2016

Schizostachyum

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Schizostachyum brachycladum 'Bali Kuning' — ไผ่ทอง (phai thong) — seeds from Thailand — seed collectors: Thammarat Boonthammee of Boonthammee Bamboo Garden, and Khun Dieter at Baan Sammi Nature Resort and Bamboo Garden

• seeds collected in low quantity at Boonthammee Bamboo Garden
in early August 2016, not offered for distribution

• seeds (BS-0191A) collected in low quantity at Baan Sammi Bamboo Garden
from August to October 2016, not offered for distribution
• 10 seeds weigh 0.4 grams

Schizostachyum brachycladum 'Bali Kuning' (BS-0191):
Culms and a new shoot (left), habit (right)

■ Height up to 10 (12) m, diameter up to 5 (6) cm; clumper.
■ Frequently and widely cultivated in Southeast Asia, and in other tropical areas worldwide. The species flowers nearly every year, usually doesn't produce any seeds, and its flowering doesn't harm its vegetative growth. This is the first time that we found seeds of this species which were collected from August to October 2016. The seeds (caryopsis) have a long persistent style which is typical for species in this genus.
■ The species prefers moisture-retentive soil, and can grow in full sun to light shade.
■ Plants mainly used as garden ornamentals and for landscaping; culms used for woven articles and handicraft, musical instruments, and for interior design.

Schizostachyum brachycladum 'Bali Kuning':
Flowers on the mother plant (BS-0191) (top),
seeds (BS-0191A) with lemma and palea (mid),
and without lemma and palea (bottom)

► Photos of seeds from Boonthammee Bamboo Garden in facebook, 7 Aug. 2016.
► Seed viability: Unknown; the seeds might keep their viability for very few months under normal atmospheric conditions.
► Seed germination record: Seeds were sown out immediately after collecting (germination tests 160811, 160822, 160903, 160911, 161008, 161017, 161029). 48 seeds were collected from 11 Aug. to 29 Oct. 2016, of which 46 seeds were used in 7 batches for germination tests during this period. Altogether 12 seeds germinated (= 26%), of which 10 developed seedlings with a single primary leaf blade at least. All blades were albinistic (complete or nearly complete lack of chlorophyll pigments), and none of the seedlings did survive and died within one to three weeks from developing a first leaf blade. Hence, one can assume that 'Bali Kuning' is not capable to produce seeds that can develop seedlings with sufficient chlorophyll pigments to initiate photo­synthesis to survive, but the number of seeds available for tests has been too small to verify this assumption..

One of the seedlings from seeds of Schizostachyum brachycladum 'Bali Kuning'

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Schizostachyum funghomii — 沙罗单竹 (sha luo dan zhu) — seeds from China — BS-0622, BS-0622-1 — seed supplier: FMXG Nursery, distributed by Baan Sammi

• seeds collected in 2010, in June 2011, and in May 2012
• estimated 190-260 seeds per 10 g [gram]

Schizostachyum funghomii: Culms, with one new shoot in the foreground
(courtesy FMXG)

Schizostachyum funghomii:
Seeds (left), young seedling (center), internode with culm sheath of a young culm (right)

■ Height 13-18 m; culm diameter 5-8 cm; clumper.
■ Distributed in southern China.
■ Moisture-retentive soil, light shade, known to tolerate a little frost (to -3 °C was recorded), thus suitable for warm-temperate and sub­tropical climates.
■ For furniture-making, handicrafts, paper-making; shoots delicious, can be eaten raw, processed for dry shoots and canned shoots; plants used as ornamentals.

Schizostachyum funghomii: Germinating seeds on tissue paper, from the May 2012 collection

► Photos (AF)!
► Seed viability: Three months under normal atmospheric conditions; half year under storage at 1-6 °C.
► Seed germination record: Seed laid on moistened tissue paper, in June 2012, 29-31 °C day, diffuse light, 24 °C night, atmospheric humidity >70%, the first coleoptiles emerged after 10 days, germination rate low (<40%).

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Schizostachyum grande — ไผ่ตากวาง (phai ta kwang), ไผ่เหมียง (phai miang) — Deer Eye Bamboo — seeds from Thailand — BS-0556A, BS-0116A, BS-0116B, BS-0116C, BS-0116D — seed suppliers and seed distributors: Baan Sammi Bamboo Garden and Boonthammee Bamboo Garden

• seeds collected in low quantity in Apr./May 2013
• seeds collected in low quantity in June 2013
• seeds collected in low quantity in July/Aug. 2013
• seeds collected in low quantity Feb. - May 2014
• seeds collected in low quantity in Aug./Sep. 2014
• seeds (BS-0116C, BS-0116D) collected in low quantity in Feb./Mar. 2015
offered in 2 quality classes: grade A and B seeds, both hand-selected
• estimated 15-20 grade A seeds, 25-30 grade B seeds per 1.0 g [gram]

Schizostachyum grande (BS-0116) from Satun: Young shoots

Schizostachyum grande (BS-0116) from Satun: A young shoot, widely arching, still unbranched

Schizostachyum grande (BS-0556) from Songkhla: Flowering branch, mid March 2013

■ Height 12-20 m; culm diameter 7-12 cm; clumper.
■ Widely distributed in southern Thailand and Malaysia, in lowlands and up to 1,000 m altitude. Seeds from Songkhla (BS-0556A), and Satun (BS-0116A, BS-0116B, BS-0116C, BS-0116D), Thailand.
■ Possibly not frost-resistant, suitable for tropical and subtropical climates, easy growing in heavy, loamy and moist soil.
■ Culms arching over in a wide bow; leaves very large.
■ Shoots delicious; culms said to be very durable under moist conditions, used as water pipes and roofing; plants for landscaping.

Schizostachyum grande (BS-0116C, BS-0116D) from Satun:
Seeds grade A (left), grade B (right)
Schizostachyum grande (BS-0116C, BS-0116D) from Satun:
Germinating seeds grade A (left) and grade B (right)
as early as 2 days after collecting
(soaked in clean water overnight, thereafter enclosed in wet cotton cloth)

► Further text information and link to photos (BT)!
► Photos: (GA)!
► Seed viability: at least 3-4 months, a possibly longer viable time period has not yet been tested.
► Seed germination records:
(1) The first six collected seeds (BS-0556A) laid on moistened tissue paper, 9 Apr. 2013, over 30 °C day, diffuse light, over 20 °C night, atmospheric humidity >70%, the first coleoptiles emerged after 5 days, 3 seeds germinated, of which 2 seeds developed into healthy seedlings.
(2) On 28 July 2013, a single seed (BS-0556A) was laid on moistened tissue paper, atmospheric humidity >70%, the primary root developed after 5 days, the coleoptile emerged after 13 days.
(3) A single seed (BS-0116A) collected 19 Feb. 2014, placed on moistened tissue paper 22 Feb., atmospheric humidity >70%, minimum night temperature 15 °C, maximum day temperature 34 °C, diffuse light, this seed sprouted on 54th(!) day after sowing (test 140222).
(4) Six seeds (BS-0116A) collected early Apr., placed on moistened tissue paper 5 Apr., atmospheric humidity >70%, minimum night temperature 18 °C, maximum day temperature 34 °C, diffuse light, the first seed sprouted on 10th day (test 140405).
(5) Two tests were carried out on 18 and 22 Oct. 2014 in order to assess the impact of the fungicide Captan on the germination process. All seeds were placed on moistened tissue paper, atmospheric humidity >70%, minimum night temperature 20 °C, maximum day temperature 30 °C, diffuse light. Bracts of 20 seeds were removed and no fungicide applied (18 Oct.), the primary roots and coleoptiles appeared on 3 seeds on the 6th day, and altogether 6 seeds developed into seedlings (germination rate 30%), the other seeds did not, and most of these seeds were heavily affected by fungus. A further 83 seeds (with their bracts not removed) were soaked in fungicide solution for less than 6 hours (22 Oct.), the primary roots and coleoptiles appeared on only 4 seeds between the 6th and 9th day and developed into seedlings (germination rate about 5%). By the 19th day, all the other 79 seeds did not, but very few seeds of them were slightly affected by fungus. The results indicate that the fungicide solution should be applied in a lower concentration, or the application of another fungicide type should be considered (tests 141018 and 141022).
(6) Non-representative tests with the 2015 collected seeds (BS-0116C, BS-0116D) showed that a germination rate of not over 30% can be expected.
► pH tolerability test (Jul.-Sep. 2014): Seedlings (BS-0116A) do not tolerate high alkaline growth medium.

Schizostachyum grande from Satun (BS-0116B): Seeds
Schizostachyum grande from Songkhla (BS-0556A): Seeds
Schizostachyum grande (BS-0556A): Germinating seed, 7th day (left), 22nd day (right)
Schizostachyum grande (BS-0556A): Three months old seedlings

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Schizostachyum pergracile, Cephalostachyum pergracile — ไผ่ข้าวหลาม (phai khao lam) — seeds from Thailand — BS-0387A, BS-0691 — seed supplier: Baan Sammi Bamboo Garden, and Thai Bamboo Nursery at Krabi

• seeds from Chiang Rai Province (BS-0691),
collected by Thai Bamboo Nursery in Feb. 2012
• seeds from Chiang Mai Province (BS-0387A),
collected at Baan Sammi Jan. - Mar. 2012
• estimated 400-440 seeds per 10 g [gram]

Schizostachyum pergracile: Flowering branches (BS-0691)

Schizostachyum pergracile: Seeds (BS-0691)

■ Height 5-15 m; culm diameter 5-8 cm; clumper.
■ Wild and cultivated in northern Thailand, and adjacent countries. In China, the species is known to be distributed in southern Yunnan on hills at altitudes of 500-1,200 meters.
■ Grows in part shade and full sun, on moisture-retentive soil, suitable for subtropical and tropical climates. Resistant to cold to 0 °C (USA), but frost resistance to -2 °C was recorded from China.
■ Plants for gardens and landscaping; the internode is used as a flavor-adding cooking vessel.

Schizostachyum pergracile: Germinating seed (BS-0691) on tissue paper, 10th day (above).
Mature culms of a non-flowering plant (BS-0182), left culm over 1 year old,
right culm less than half year old, with culm sheath (right, below)

Schizostachyum pergracile (BS-0182):
New culm with culm sheath (right side)
and old culm (left side)
of a plant from Thailand
► Photos (BT) (AF)!
► Seed collection record: Seeds collected from cultivated, tall plants in northern Thailand; gregariously flowering; nearly all spikelets consisted of empty florets, seeds very rarely developed. First batch of seeds (BS-0691) were collected from plants in Chiang Rai Province at high altitude in Feb. 2012; second batch of seeds (BS-0387A) by a different collector in Mar. 2012, from a single tall plant of another population grown at 300 m altitude in Chiang Mai Province.
► Seed germination record: (1) Seeds of the first batch (BS-0691) laid on moistened tissue paper, 26 February 2012, the first coleoptile emerged after 9 days, 29-31 °C day, diffuse light, 15-17 °C night, atmospheric humidity >70%, germination rate rather low (<20%), possibly due to a large portion of unripe seeds. (2) Seeds of the second batch (BS-0387A) with only ripe big seeds, sown in March 2012, showed a high germination rate (>60%). As the period of viability for this species is unknown, we tested germinability every 4 weeks. Germinability has been over 50%, and 60% in the last test in late November 2012.

Schizostachyum pergracile (BS-0691): 17 months old seedling

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Schizostachyum pergracile (?) — "香糯竹 (xiāng nuò zhú)" — seeds from China, received as "Cephalostachyum pergracile" — BS-0815 — seed supplier: Yunnan Bamboo Nursery, seed distributor: Boonthammee Bamboo Garden

• seeds collected March 2015
• estimated 230-280 seeds per 10 g [gram]

Seeds (BS-0815) received from China
as "Cephalostachyum pergracile, 香糯竹 (xiāng nuò zhú)"

Seeds (BS-0815) received from China as "Cephalostachyum pergracile,
香糯竹 (xiāng nuò zhú)", germinating, 9th day

■ Height and culm diameter unrecorded, clumper.

► Seed germination (test 150701): Out of 40 seeds, the first 4 seeds germinated as early as on the 2nd day after sowing, and further 15(!) seeds on the 3rd day. A germination rate of 40-60% could be expected. Half year later, a second test (test 160119) indicated again good germination results.

Seeds (BS-0815) received from China as "Cephalostachyum pergracile,
香糯竹 (xiāng nuò zhú)", 10 months old, germinating, 24th day

► It is doubtful that these seeds (BS-0815) received from China are genuine Schizostachyum pergracile (syn. Cephalo­stachyum pergracile) as seed morphology is quite different. Seeds of S. pergracile have an ellipsoid to obovoid shape, are not grooved, and the seed apex is with a long and persistent style base; see photos of seeds in BT. (Khun Dieter, pers. comm., 2 July 2015). However, the seeds (BS-0815) are morphologically different from all other seeds that have been obtained from China or elsewhere, so that seeds (BS-0815) most likely represent a first time offered species.

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Schizostachyum pingbianense, Cephalostachyum pingbianense — 屏边思劳竹 (píng biān sī láo zhú) — seeds from China — BS-0631 — seed supplier: FMXG Nursery, distributed by Baan Sammi

• seeds collected in 2010, and in 2011
• estimated 190-260 seeds per 10 g [gram]

■ Height 5-7 m; culm diameter 1-2(3) cm; clumper; culms arching or leaning.
■ Distributed in China, south-eastern Yunnan: Pingbian county, in humid evergreen broad-leaved forests, at 1,500 - 2,200 m altitude.
■ The epithet is often found misspelled as "pingbianensis".

► Photos: BT.

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Schizostachyum "virgatum" — ไผ่เฮียะ (phai hia), ไผ่เฮี๊ยะ (phai hia) — seeds from Thailand — BS-0148 — seed supplier: Nanbamboo (น่านแบมบู)

• seeds have been collected in large quantity in early 2014
• seeds not distributed by Baan Sammi

Schizostachyum "virgatum" (BS-0148):
Seeds (top), flowering branch (bottom)
■ Seeds collected in northern Thailand. A medium-sized bamboo, culms thin-walled, used for basketry, plants suitable as a garden plant and for landscaping.
■ ไผ่เฮียะ (phai hia) in Thailand has been widely identified as Cephalostachyum virgatum, syn. Schizostachyum virgatum. The flowering branch of this bamboo shows that it is a species of Schizo­stachyum, not Cephalo­stachyum (which has capitate spikelets). Further­more, the culm sheath is similar to many other species of Schizo­stachyum, and does not resemble true Cephalo­stachyum virgatum (as shown from herbarium specimens of Chiang Mai University and Kew Herbarium). This bamboo might turn out to be Schizostachyum dullooa, but more detailed examination of the plant's characteristics is needed before this identification can be confirmed.
— According to Khun Dieter, 14 June 2014.

Schizostachyum virgatum (BS-0148):
Seedling, 49th day
► Seed germination test: Two tests (140307, 140320). Provisional results show that initiation of germination takes long, and germination rate is low. The first seed sprouted on the 35th/36th day. Duration of seed viability is unknown.







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